If a contract or contractual clause is annulled, it is treated as if it never existed – it has no legal value between the parties. If a contact or contract provision is cancelled (vernietigbaar), it means that it can be avoided and cancelled. Marriages may also be annulled due to fraud in one or more of the three categories: defendant, witness to marriage or absence of marriage. Any misrepresentation of these three parties, including, but not limited to lies: Amtsatier status, ability to organize the ceremony, age of participants or witnesses, status of one of the two members of the couple or the current marital status of one of the two members of the couple may be grounds for nullity on the basis of fraud. Fraud in these cases is being prosecuted as a Class H crime under Wisconsin 943.39. The cancellation of a contract under Dutch law can be made by an out-of-court declaration or by a judgment. In the event that the annulled deed concerns the transfer of registered ownership and not all parties to the deed accept the annulment, a judgment to quash is necessary. In the event of nullity and annulment of an act, the legal effects envisaged do not exist. Nullity works automatically, ex lege.
In legal orders, this is sometimes called void ab initio. Under Dutch law, nullity is not necessary; in essence, the provision never existed legally. For this reason, there is no time limit for arguing nullity. In the United States, cancellation laws vary from state to state. Although the reasons for annulment are different, as factors likely to disqualify a person in the event of annulment are among the general reasons for annulment: Section 13 of the Marital Cases Act 1973 provides for certain restrictions on the possibility of annulment of null marriages, even if the petitioner was aware of the «error» and the possibility of annulment , but made the respondent believe that he would not seek the cancellation; or if it was «unfair» for the respondent to adopt the nullity order. The opening of the proceedings is usually subject to a period of three years from the date of marriage.  In Wisconsin, the possible cancellation requirements are: Bigamy, incest or decomposition of the bride, marry under duress (see gun marriage).  Marriages may also be declared invalidated because one or more of the parties: minor, drunk or mentally carefree.  Under Dutch law, the right to cancel is extinguished in a number of cases.